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67) ABOUT COMMERCIAL SUGAR WAFERS IN NORTH AMERICA First came UK imports: [1878] "Peek Frean & Co.

Sugar Wafers." ---display ad, Fitchburg Sentinel [MA] January 11, 1878 (p.

There the word cookies, distinguishing small confections, appeared: The word comes from the Dutch Koeptje [koekje], meaning small cake.

By the end of the 14th Century, one could buy little filled wafers on the streets of Paris...

The change in the demand for biscuit and cracker output was clearly a shift from staple to 'luxury' products.

Unlike the demand for bread, there was little opportunity for cracker bakers to benefit form a home to factory movement.

Savory crackers represent the practical and may well have been the first convenience foods: A flour paste, cooked once, then cooked again to dry it thoroughly, becomes a hard, portable victual with an extraordinarily long storage life--perfect for traveling....Sweet biscuits had previously been imported from England.When such sweets achieved a measure of popularity in this country, Belcher and Larrabee, cracker bakers in Albany, New York, imported machinery and methods for baking them shortly after the Civil War.Small cakes and delicate wafers were gradually added to the family of biscuits. A kind of crisp dry bread more or less hard, prepared generally in thin flat cakes. In Scotland the usual name for a baker's plain bun; in U. While the English primarily referred to cookies as small cakes, seed biscuits, or tea cakes, or by specific names, such as jumbal or macaroon, the Dutch called the koekjes, a diminutive of koek (cake)...In most English-speaking countries, the traditional definition of biscuit remains. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term "biscuit" debuted in the 14th century. The essential ingredients are flour and water, or milk, without leaven; but confectionery and fancy biscuits are very variously composed and flavoured. Etymologists note that by the early 1700s, koekje had been Anglicized into "cookie" or "cookey," and the word clearly had become part of the American vernacular.

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