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Atmospheric engines, however, had to be so arranged to make them work rotatively (see No. For pumping, a similar arrangement is known to have been adopted (see adjacent photograph). The steam and exhaust drop valves are driven by a countershaft from an eccentric, a mechanism introduced for this purpose by Murdock in 1800. The condenser is cylindrical and is enclosed in a water tank. The slide valve is worked by a single eccen- tric, and the speed of the engine is controlled by Watt's conical pendulum, governor, which acts on a throttle valve in the steam passage. A similar small engine (working) is shown in a neighbouring case. This is the original model constructed in 1785 by William Murdock at the Soho Works. The crank pin is directly attached to the piston-rod the cylinder oscillating on central trunnions. It drove a thrashing machine and was rendered self-propelling by pitch chains from the crankshaft to the travelling axle. Rennie to drive a screw propeller (see Marine Engineering Collec- tion) ; more recently the arrangement has been extensively used as a water meter (see Nos. The chamber, which acts as a cylinder, is enclosed laterally by a spherical zone and endwise by a pair of cones whose apexes come together.

, 39 The model bears internal evidence of having been made subsequent to 1800 ; it was for many years at Oorbyn's Hall Ironworks, Staffordshire, whither it is said to have been sent from Soho Foundry. To the top of the condenser is secured the air-pump, the discharge of which is led off by a shoot. The cast-iron tank, standards, and beam, together with the general arrangement of the engine, hardly differed from those of similar engines of 50 years subsequently. M.962, 78, Sectional wooden model of beam engine (working). ^This is a copy in wood of Watt's rotative beam engine adjacent, sectioned to show the internal construction. The outside trunnion is that through which the working fluid is introduced, while the other is merely a mechanical support. A similar engine was applied with some success by Messrs. The piston is a circular disc fitting the interior of the zone round its edge, and having at its centre a ball which forms the joint on which it gyrates.

The earliest attempt to arrange a locomotive as a compound engine was made about 1849, on the Eastern Counties Railway, when an ordinary goods engine had its valves so altered that the first cylinder cut off at about half stroke and then allowed its steam to expand in both cylinders. The steam distributing valves were four-way plug cocks oscillated through 90 deg.

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In this way a successful type of colliery locomotive was arrived at, and one which slowly proved its superiority to traction by animals where heavy loads were to be moved at a slow pace. Worsdell adopted the same arrangement on the Great Eastern Railway and subsequently on the North Eastern Railway (see No. 161, and worked by a tappet rod from the crosshead ; the exhaust was delivered into the chimney, where it was noticed that the waste heat rendered it invisible, and that it made the draught much stronger. stroke, and a tractive factor of 11 ; there is, however, no evidence that the lighter engine was ever constructed. (Scales 1 : 16, 1 : 12, and 1:2.) Presented by Thomas Smith, Esq., 1873. This 92 locomotive was probably the first one with flanged wheels ; it appears, how- ever, to have been only a partial success, probably owing to the wooden rails being unequal to carrying its weight, which was'about 4- 5 tons. It is recorded that similar engines were used also on three other colliery railways. ANDREW'S CRESCENT, CARDIFF- ' 23, FORTH STREET EDINBURGH; or from E. Other objects are arranged so that visitors may work them by turning a handle or by other means, and there are a few that can be shown in motion only by an attendant. Boulton and Watt at Birmingham, 1797-1804 (see facsimile of hie indentures on the wall). stroke which, by rocking levers, drove cranks of 18 in. Qd, EXCHANGE BOARD CATALOGUE OF THE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING COLLECTION IN THE SCIENCE MUSEUM, (^SOUTH KENSINGTON. LONDON: PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE. ANDREW'S CRESCENT, CARDIFF; 23, FORTH STREET, EDINBURGH; or from E. Many of the machines are shown in motion daily from 11 a.m. BOARD OF EDUCATION ; CATALOGUE OF THE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING COLLECTION IN THE SCIENCE MUSEUM, SOUTH KENSINGTON. C.2, and 28, ABINGDON STREET LONDON sw i 37, PETER STREET, MANCHESTER; 1, ST. Where practicable, these objects are fitted with self- closing air-valves, by means of which visitors may start them at will. This model was made by William Tongue, while an apprentice with Messrs. diam., giving a tractive factor of 72, and there were four other wheels 36 in. The boiler had a rectangular firebox of copper, and there were 133 tubes. STEAM ENGINES AND OTHER MOTORS ; LOCOMOTIVES AND RAILWAYS; MECHANICAL MEASURING APPLIANCES; PUMPS AND LIFTING MACHINERY; POWER TRANSMISSION. Revised, with a Supplement ii i LONDON: PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFF) To be purchased through any Bookseller or directly from II. STATIONEEY OFFICE at the following addresses: IMPERIAL HOUSE, KINGS-WAY, LONDON, W. To be purchased through any Bookseller or directly from H. STATIONERY OFFICE at the following addresses : IMPERIAL HOUSE, KINGSWAY, LONDON, W. till closing time, the motive power being supplied by a compressed air service.

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