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His catalogue numbers are still in use, M.1, M.2 etc.
Caroline Herschel and her brothers William and Alexander who were also searching for comets, got a copy of Messier's catalogue in 1781.
Plucky little lad was visited in hospital by the Elector of Bavaria, Maximillan Joseph who gave him a present of 18 ducats so he could set up his own business. Miller in London, found bright lines that corresponded with Fraunhofer's dark lines.
Fraunhofer mapped the lines found in the spectrum of the sun and found identical lines in the spectra of the moon and planets (since they shine by reflected sunlight). One evening Gustav Kirchoff and Robert Bunsen (inventor of Bunsen burner) used a spectroscope on a massive fire ravaging the city of Mannheim ten miles to the west of them.
All that was needed was a way to fix the image projected by light, instead of tracing it.As the electrons of the atoms of each element only exist at certain energy levels and are never found between, the spectrum of each element shows a characteristic pattern of lines which identify the element as the lines will always been at the same places at the same energy levels of each element.For example the electron of a hydrogen atom may be "excited" to jump up to a higher energy level, it will then drop back as the hydrogen gas cools down.(He really wanted to be a lawyer but his father and aunt needed help as they got old - William was 54 when his son was born, Caroline was 42).He invented the word photography and pioneered the application of photography to astronomy.